## Syllogism Questions and Answers : Logical Reasoning

• (Q. 1 - 5) : In each of the questions below are given two or more statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be a at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
• 1. Statements:
No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos
All kangaroos are wolfs
Conclusions:
I. All kangaroos can never be giraffes
II. All giraffes are definitely wolfs.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos

E + A ⇒ O1 - type of Conclusion " Some kangaroos are not giraffes."
This Conclusion implies that "All kangaroos can never be giraffes."
All leopards are wolfs.
All kangaroos are wolfs

A + A ⇒ A - type of conclusion " All leopards are wolfs."

• 2. Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All guavas are fruits.
II. Some guavas are fruits
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
I + A => I - type of conclusion
"Some fruits are guavas".
Conclusion II is Converse of it.
All mangos are guavas
No guava is a banana.
A + E => E - type of conclusion
"No mango is a banana

• 3. Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All fruits are bananas.
II. No mango is a banana.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana

A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No mango is a banana."
This is Conclusion II.

• 4. Statements:
All locks are keys.
Some keys are pockets.
Conclusions:
I. No pocket is lock.
II. At least some pockets are keys.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All locks are keys
Some keys are pockets.
A + I => No conclusion
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

• 5. Statements:
No books is a pen.
All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
Conclusions:
I. All pens are erasers.
II. At least some erasers are pencils.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers           --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples          --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page                 --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All pens are erasers."
This is conclusion I.
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

• 6. Statements:
All pens are books
Some pencils are pens
Conclusions:
1. some books are pencils
2. Some pencils are books
3. All pens are pencils
4. None
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some pencils are books

• 7. Statements:
All pens are books
No pencils are books
Conclusion:
1. All books are pencils
2. All pencils are books
3. Some pencils are books
4. None
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some pencils are books

• 8. Statements:
No mat is pot
All pots are bats
Conclusion:
1. No mats are bats
2. No bats are mats
3. Some bats are mats
4. Some bats are not mats
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some bats are not mats

• 9. Statements:
Some tables are trees
Some trees are flowers
All flowers are jungles
Conclusion:
1. Some jungles are tables
2. Some trees are jungles
3. Some flowers are tables
4. All jungles are flowers
A.) Only 2 follows
B.) Only 1 and 2 follows
C.) Only 3 follows
D.) None of these

Only 2 follows

• 10. Statements:
All benches are cots
No cot is lamp
Some lamps are candles
Conclusions:
1. some cots are candles
2. Some candles are cots
A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
D.) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

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