## Syllogism Questions and Answers : Logical Reasoning

• (Q. 1 - 5) : In each of the questions below are given two or more statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be a at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
• 1. Statements:
No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos
All kangaroos are wolfs
Conclusions:
I. All kangaroos can never be giraffes
II. All giraffes are definitely wolfs.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos

E + A ⇒ O1 - type of Conclusion " Some kangaroos are not giraffes."
This Conclusion implies that "All kangaroos can never be giraffes."
All leopards are wolfs.
All kangaroos are wolfs

A + A ⇒ A - type of conclusion " All leopards are wolfs."

• 2. Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All guavas are fruits.
II. Some guavas are fruits
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
I + A => I - type of conclusion
"Some fruits are guavas".
Conclusion II is Converse of it.
All mangos are guavas
No guava is a banana.
A + E => E - type of conclusion
"No mango is a banana

• 3. Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All fruits are bananas.
II. No mango is a banana.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana

A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No mango is a banana."
This is Conclusion II.

• 4. Statements:
All locks are keys.
Some keys are pockets.
Conclusions:
I. No pocket is lock.
II. At least some pockets are keys.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All locks are keys
Some keys are pockets.
A + I => No conclusion
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

• 5. Statements:
No books is a pen.
All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
Conclusions:
I. All pens are erasers.
II. At least some erasers are pencils.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

(i)  All pages are markers           --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples          --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page                 --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All pens are erasers."
This is conclusion I.
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

• 6. Statements:
All pens are books
Some pencils are pens
Conclusions:
1. some books are pencils
2. Some pencils are books
3. All pens are pencils
4. None
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some pencils are books

• 7. Statements:
All pens are books
No pencils are books
Conclusion:
1. All books are pencils
2. All pencils are books
3. Some pencils are books
4. None
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some pencils are books

• 8. Statements:
No mat is pot
All pots are bats
Conclusion:
1. No mats are bats
2. No bats are mats
3. Some bats are mats
4. Some bats are not mats
A.) 1
B.) 2
C.) 3
D.) 4

Some bats are not mats

• 9. Statements:
Some tables are trees
Some trees are flowers
All flowers are jungles
Conclusion:
1. Some jungles are tables
2. Some trees are jungles
3. Some flowers are tables
4. All jungles are flowers
A.) Only 2 follows
B.) Only 1 and 2 follows
C.) Only 3 follows
D.) None of these

Only 2 follows

• 10. Statements:
All benches are cots
No cot is lamp
Some lamps are candles
Conclusions:
1. some cots are candles
2. Some candles are cots
A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
D.) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

• (Q.11 - 15) : In each question below are four statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the four given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
• 11. Statements :
All belts are rollers.
Some rollers are wheels.
All wheels are mats.
Some mats are cars.
Conclusion :
I. Some mats are rollers.
II. Some mats are belts.
III. Some cars are rollers.
IV.  Some rollers are belts.
A.) Only I and II follows
B.) Only I, III and IV follows
C.) Only I and IV follow
D.) Only II, III and IV follow

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
Some rollers are wheels.
All wheels are mats.

I + A => I - types of Conclusion
"Some rollers are mats."
Conclusion I is Converse of it.
Conclusion IV is Converse of the first Premise.

• 12. Statements :
All bulbs are wires.
No wire is cable.
Some cables are paints.
Conclusions :
I. Some paints are cables.
II. Some wires are bulbs.
III. Some brushes are wires.
IV. Some cables are bulbs.
A.) None follows
B.) Only I and II follow
C.) Only II follows
D.) Only III follows

All bulbs are wires.
No wire is cable
.
A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No bulb is cable."
Some cables are brushes
All brushes are paints.

I + A => I - type of Conclusion
"Some cables are paints."
Conclusion I is Converse of it.
Conclusion II is Converse of the first Premise.

• 13. Statements :
Some tyres are rains.
Some rains are flowers.
All flowers are jungles.
All jungles are tubes.
Conclusions :
I. Some jungles are types.
II. Some tubes are rains.                  r
III. Some jungles are rains.
IV. Some tubes are floers.
A.) Only I, II and III follows
B.) Only II, III and IV follows
C.) Only I, III and IV follows
D.) All follow

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
Some rains are floers.
All flowers are jungles.

I + A => I - types of Conclusion
"Some rains are jungles."
Conclusion III is Converse of it.
All flowers are jungles.
All jungles are tubes.

A + A => A - types of Conclusion
"All flowers are tubes."
Conclusion IV is Converse of it.
Some rains are jungles.
All jungles are tubes.

I + A => I - types of Conclusion
"Some rains are tubes."
Conclusion II is Converse of it.

• 14. Statements :
All papers are bottles.
All bottles are cups.
Some cups are jugs.
Some jugs are plates.
Conclusions :
I. Some plates are cups.
II. Some plates are bottles.
III. Some cups are papers.
IV. Some bottles are papers.
A.) Only III and IV follows
B.) Only I and II follows
C.) Only I and III follows
D.) Only II and IV follows

All papers are bottles.
All bottles are cups.

A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All papers are cups."
Conclusion III is Converse of it.
Conclusion IV is Converse of the first Premise.

• 15. Statements :
Some birds are goats.
Some goats are horses.
Some horses are lions.
Some lions are tigers.
Conclusions :
I. Some tigers are goats.
II. No tiger is goat.
III. Some lions are birds.
IV. No lion is bird.
A.) Only either I or II follows
B.) Only either III or IV follows
C.) Only either I or II and III or IV follows
D.) Only I and II follows

All the four Premises are Particular Affirmative (I - type)
No Conclusion follows from the two Particular Premises.
Conclusions I and II from Complementary Pair.
∴ either Conclusion I or II follows.
Similarly, Conclusions III and IV form Complementary Pair.
∴ either Conclusion III or IV follows.

• 16. Statements:
All ponds are stores
Some stores are bags
Conclusion:
Some bags are ponds
A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
D.) If both conclusions 1 and 2 follows

If both conclusions 1 and 2 follows

• 17. Statements:
All balls are wickets
No wicket is bat
Some bats are wickets
Conclusion:
1. some bats are balls
2. All balls are wickets
3. Some wickets are balls
4. No bat is ball
A.) Only conclusion 1
B.) Only conclusion 3
C.) If neither conclusion 1 nor 4 and 3
D.) None

If neither conclusion 1 nor 4 and 3

• 18. Statements:
Some pigs are dogs
No cow is goat
Some goats are nets
Conclusion:
1. some pigs are cows
2. Some nets are cows
3. Some nets are pigs
4. Some dogs are either pigs of nets
A.) Only 1 follow
B.) Only 2 follow
C.) Only 1 and 2 follow
D.) Only 2 and 4 follow

Only 2 follow

• 19. Statements:
All flowers are fruits
All trees are leaves
Some fruits are leaves
Conclusion:
1.Some trees are fruits
2. Some leaves are flowers
3. Some trees are flowers
4. No Flower is leave
A.) Only 1 follows
B.) Only either 2 or 4 follows
C.) Only 3 follows
D.) Only 1, 2 and 3 follows

Only either 2 or 4 follows

• 20. Statements:
All shirts are chairs
Some chairs are rats
All rats are pens.
Conclusion:
1. Some pens are shirts
2. Some pens are chairs
3. Some rats are shirts
4. No pen is shirt
A.) None follows
B.) Only either 1 or 4 follows
C.) Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow
D.) Only either 1 or 4 and 3 follow

Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow

• 21. Statements:
Some sweets are chocolates
Some chocolates are mints
Some mints are food
Some food is diet.
Conclusion:
1. No sweets are diet
2. No food is chocolates
3. Some sweets are diet
4. Some sweets are food
A.) None follows
B.) Only 1 and 3 follows
C.) Only 2 and 4 follows
D.) Only 2 and 3 follows

Only 1 and 3 follows

• 22. Statements:
Some roses are flowers
Some flowers are buds
All buds are leaves
All leaves are plants
Conclusion:
1. Some plants are flowers
2. Some roses are buds
3. No leaves are roses
4. No roses are buds
A.) Only 1 follows
B.) Only 1 and 2 follow
C.) Only 1 and either 2 or 4 follow
D.) Only either 2 or 4 follows

Only 1 and either 2 or 4 follow

• 23. Statements:
All rods are bricks
Some bricks are ropes
All ropes are doors
Concussion:
1. Some rods are doors
2. Some doors are bricks
3. Some rods are not doors
4. All doors are ropes
A.) Only 1 and 2 follows
B.) Only 1,2 and 3 follows
C.) Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follow
D.) Only either 1 or 3 and 4 follow

Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follow

• 24. Statements:
All boys are girls
Some girls are students
All students are healthy.
Conclusion:
1. Some healthy people are boys
2. Some healthy people are girls
3. Some students are boys
4. No healyh people are boys
A.) None follows
B.) Only either 1 or 4 follows
C.) Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow
D.) Only either 1 or 4 and 3 follow

Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow

• 25. Statements:
Some bidrs are nightigales
Many birds sing
Conclusion:
1. Many nightigales sing
2. No bird is a nightigales
3. Some birds sing
4. 1,2,3 are all incorrect
A.) None follows
B.) Only 3 follows
C.) Only 2 and 4 follows
D.) Only 2 and 3 follows