Syllogism Questions and Answers : Logical Reasoning

1.

Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All guavas are fruits.
II. Some guavas are fruits

   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
I + A => I - type of conclusion
"Some fruits are guavas".
Conclusion II is Converse of it.
All mangos are guavas
No guava is a banana.
A + E => E - type of conclusion
"No mango is a banana

2.

Statements :
All bulbs are wires.
No wire is cable.
Some cables are paints.
Conclusions :
I. Some paints are cables.
II. Some wires are bulbs.
III. Some brushes are wires.
IV. Some cables are bulbs.

   A.) None follows
   B.) Only I and II follow
   C.) Only II follows
   D.) Only III follows

Answer: Option 'B'

All bulbs are wires.
 No wire is cable
.
 A + E => E - type of Conclusion
 "No bulb is cable."
 Some cables are brushes
 All brushes are paints.

 I + A => I - type of Conclusion
 "Some cables are paints."
 Conclusion I is Converse of it.
 Conclusion II is Converse of the first Premise.

3.

Statements: 
All parrots are pigeons  
Some pigeons are crows
Concussion: 
1. Some crows are pigeons 
2. Some pigeons are crows 
3. Some parrots are crows 
4. Some crows are not pigeons

   A.) Only 1 follows
   B.) Only 1,2 and 3 follows
   C.) Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follows
   D.) Only 1 and 2 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

Only 1 and 2 follows

  • (Q.11 - 15) : In each question below are four statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the four given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

4.

Statements :
All belts are rollers.
Some rollers are wheels.
All wheels are mats.
Some mats are cars.
Conclusion :
I. Some mats are rollers.
II. Some mats are belts.
III. Some cars are rollers. 
IV.  Some rollers are belts.

   A.) Only I and II follows
   B.) Only I, III and IV follows
   C.) Only I and IV follow
   D.) Only II, III and IV follow

Answer: Option 'C'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
Some rollers are wheels.
All wheels are mats.

I + A => I - types of Conclusion
"Some rollers are mats."
Conclusion I is Converse of it.
Conclusion IV is Converse of the first Premise.

5.

Statements: 
All rods are bricks   
Some bricks are ropes  
All ropes are doors
Concussion: 
1. Some rods are doors 
2. Some doors are bricks 
3. Some rods are not doors 
4. All doors are ropes

   A.) Only 1 and 2 follows
   B.) Only 1,2 and 3 follows
   C.) Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follow
   D.) Only either 1 or 3 and 4 follow

Answer: Option 'C'

Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follow

6.

Statements:  
All boys are girls  
Some girls are students 
All students are healthy.
Conclusion: 
1. Some healthy people are boys 
2. Some healthy people are girls  
3. Some students are boys 
4. No healyh people are boys

   A.) None follows
   B.) Only either 1 or 4 follows
   C.) Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow
   D.) Only either 1 or 4 and 3 follow

Answer: Option 'C'

Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follow

7.

Statements:  
All cars are lorrys  
All bikes are lorrys
Conclusion: 
1. All cars are bikes 
2. All bikes are cars  
3. Some cars are bikes 
4. None of these

   A.) Only either 1 or 4 and 3 follows
   B.) Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follows
   C.) Only 4 follows
   D.) Only either 1 or 4 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

Only either 1 or 4 follows

8.

Statements :
Some birds are goats.
Some goats are horses.
Some horses are lions.
Some lions are tigers.
Conclusions :
I. Some tigers are goats.
II. No tiger is goat.
III. Some lions are birds.
IV. No lion is bird.

   A.) Only either I or II follows
   B.) Only either III or IV follows
   C.) Only either I or II and III or IV follows
   D.) Only I and II follows

Answer: Option 'C'

All the four Premises are Particular Affirmative (I - type)
No Conclusion follows from the two Particular Premises.
Conclusions I and II from Complementary Pair.
∴ either Conclusion I or II follows.
Similarly, Conclusions III and IV form Complementary Pair.
∴ either Conclusion III or IV follows.

9.

Statements: 
All planets are stars
All stars are birds
Conclusion: 
1. All stars are planets 
2. All planets are birds 
3. All birds are stars 
4. Some birds are planets

   A.) None follows
   B.) Only 1 follows
   C.) Only 2 and 4 follows
   D.) Only 2 follows

Answer: Option 'C'

Only 2 and 4 follows

10.

Statements: 
Some pigs are dogs 
No cow is goat 
Some goats are nets
Conclusion: 
1. some pigs are cows 
2. Some nets are cows 
3. Some nets are pigs 
4. Some dogs are either pigs of nets

   A.) Only 1 follow
   B.) Only 2 follow
   C.) Only 1 and 2 follow
   D.) Only 2 and 4 follow

Answer: Option 'B'

Only 2 follow

11.

Statements: 
Some roses are flowers  
Some flowers are buds 
All buds are leaves 
All leaves are plants
Conclusion: 
1. Some plants are flowers 
2. Some roses are buds 
3. No leaves are roses 
4. No roses are buds

   A.) Only 1 follows
   B.) Only 1 and 2 follow
   C.) Only 1 and either 2 or 4 follow
   D.) Only either 2 or 4 follows

Answer: Option 'C'

Only 1 and either 2 or 4 follow

12.

Statements: 
Some roads are ponds 
All ponds are stores 
Some stores are bags
Conclusion: 
Some bags are ponds 
Some stores are roads

   A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
   B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
   C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
   D.) If both conclusions 1 and 2 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

If both conclusions 1 and 2 follows

13.

Statements: 
Some students are drinkers 
Some drinkers are careless
Conclusion: 
1. Some students are careless 
2. Some careless persons are drinkers 
3. Some careless persons are students 
4. 1 and 2 are correct

   A.) None follow
   B.) Only 1 and 2 follow
   C.) Only 2 and 3 follow
   D.) Only 2 follow

Answer: Option 'D'

Only 2 follow

14.

Statements: 
All parrots are sparrows 
No sparrow is a crow
Conclusion: 
1. No parrots are crows 
2. No crows are parrots 
3. Some crows are parrots 
4. Some crows are sparrows

   A.) Only 1 follows
   B.) Only 1,2 and 3 follows
   C.) Only either 1 or 3 and 2 follows
   D.) Only 1 and 2 follows

Answer: Option 'A'

Only 1 follows

15.

Statements:  
Some sparrows are parrots 
All parrots are green 
Some green are blue
Conclusion: 
1. All parrots are green  
2. Some blue are green  
3. Some parrots are blue 
4. All green are parrots

   A.) Only either 1 or 4 and 3 follows
   B.) Only either 1 or 4 follows
   C.) Only either 1 or 4 and 2 follows
   D.) Only 2 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

Only 2 follows

16.

Statements: 
All phones are radios
No radio is a T.V 
All radios are computers
Conclusion: 
1. No phone is a T.V 
2. No computer is a T.V 
3. Some computers are T.V 
4. All radios are phones

   A.) None follows
   B.) Only 1 follows
   C.) Only 1 and 3 follows
   D.) Only 2 follows

Answer: Option 'B'

Only 1 follows

17.

Statements:
All benches are cots
No cot is lamp
Some lamps are candles
Conclusions:
1. some cots are candles
2. Some candles are cots

   A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
   B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
   C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
   D.) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

18.

Statements:
No books is a pen.
All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
Conclusions:
I. All pens are erasers.
II. At least some erasers are pencils.

   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'D'

(i)  All pages are markers           --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples          --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page                 --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All pens are erasers."
This is conclusion I.
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

19.

Statements: 
Some bidrs are nightigales 
Many birds sing
Conclusion: 
1. Many nightigales sing 
2. No bird is a nightigales 
3. Some birds sing 
4. 1,2,3 are all incorrect

   A.) None follows
   B.) Only 3 follows
   C.) Only 2 and 4 follows
   D.) Only 2 and 3 follows

Answer: Option 'B'

Only 3 follows

20.

Statements:
Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana.
Conclusions:
I. All fruits are bananas.
II. No mango is a banana.

   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana

A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No mango is a banana."
This is Conclusion II.


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