Syllogism Questions and Answers : Logical Reasoning

  • (Q. 1 - 5) : In each of the questions below are given two or more statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be a at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
  • 1. Statements:
    No giraffe is a leopard
    All leopards are kangaroos
    All kangaroos are wolfs
    Conclusions:
    I. All kangaroos can never be giraffes
    II. All giraffes are definitely wolfs.
   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'A'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos

E + A ⇒ O1 - type of Conclusion " Some kangaroos are not giraffes."
This Conclusion implies that "All kangaroos can never be giraffes."
All leopards are wolfs.
All kangaroos are wolfs

A + A ⇒ A - type of conclusion " All leopards are wolfs."

  • 2. Statements:
    Some fruits are mangos.
    All mangos are guavas.
    No guava is a banana.
    Conclusions:
    I. All guavas are fruits.
    II. Some guavas are fruits
   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
I + A => I - type of conclusion
"Some fruits are guavas".
Conclusion II is Converse of it.
All mangos are guavas
No guava is a banana.
A + E => E - type of conclusion
"No mango is a banana

  • 3. Statements:
    Some fruits are mangos.
    All mangos are guavas.
    No guava is a banana.
    Conclusions:
    I. All fruits are bananas.
    II. No mango is a banana.
   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana

A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No mango is a banana."
This is Conclusion II.

  • 4. Statements: 
    All locks are keys.
    Some keys are pockets.
    Conclusions:
    I. No pocket is lock.
    II. At least some pockets are keys.
   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All locks are keys
Some keys are pockets.
A + I => No conclusion
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

  • 5. Statements:
    No books is a pen.
    All pens are pencils
    All pencils are erasers.
    Conclusions:
    I. All pens are erasers.
    II. At least some erasers are pencils.
   A.) If only conclusion I follows.
   B.) If only conclusion II follows.
   C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
   D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'D'

(i)  All pages are markers           --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples          --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page                 --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All pens are erasers."
This is conclusion I.
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

  • 6. Statements:
    All pens are books
    Some pencils are pens
    Conclusions:
    1. some books are pencils
    2. Some pencils are books
    3. All pens are pencils
    4. None
   A.) 1
   B.) 2
   C.) 3
   D.) 4

Answer: Option 'B'

Some pencils are books 

  • 7. Statements:
    All pens are books
    No pencils are books
    Conclusion:
    1. All books are pencils
    2. All pencils are books
    3. Some pencils are books
    4. None
   A.) 1
   B.) 2
   C.) 3
   D.) 4

Answer: Option 'C'

Some pencils are books

  • 8. Statements:
    No mat is pot
    All pots are bats
    Conclusion:
    1. No mats are bats
    2. No bats are mats
    3. Some bats are mats
    4. Some bats are not mats
   A.) 1
   B.) 2
   C.) 3
   D.) 4

Answer: Option 'D'

Some bats are not mats

  • 9. Statements:
    Some tables are trees
    Some trees are flowers
    All flowers are jungles
    Conclusion:
    1. Some jungles are tables
    2. Some trees are jungles
    3. Some flowers are tables
    4. All jungles are flowers
   A.) Only 2 follows
   B.) Only 1 and 2 follows
   C.) Only 3 follows
   D.) None of these

Answer: Option 'A'

Only 2 follows

  • 10. Statements:
    All benches are cots
    No cot is lamp
    Some lamps are candles
    Conclusions:
    1. some cots are candles
    2. Some candles are cots
   A.) If only conclusion 1 follows
   B.) If only conclusion 2 follows
   C.) If either conclusion 1 or 2 follows
   D.) If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows

Answer: Option 'D'

If neither conclusion 1 nor 2 follows