Syllogism Questions and Answers : Logical Reasoning

  • (Q. 1 - 5) : In each of the questions below are given two or more statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be a at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
  • 1. Statements:
    No giraffe is a leopard
    All leopards are kangaroos
    All kangaroos are wolfs
    Conclusions:
    I. All kangaroos can never be giraffes
    II. All giraffes are definitely wolfs.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'A'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

No giraffe is a leopard
All leopards are kangaroos

E + A ⇒ O1 - type of Conclusion " Some kangaroos are not giraffes."
This Conclusion implies that "All kangaroos can never be giraffes."
All leopards are wolfs.
All kangaroos are wolfs

A + A ⇒ A - type of conclusion " All leopards are wolfs."

  • 2. Statements:
    Some fruits are mangos.
    All mangos are guavas.
    No guava is a banana.
    Conclusions:
    I. All guavas are fruits.
    II. Some guavas are fruits
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

Some fruits are mangos.
All mangos are guavas.
I + A => I - type of conclusion
"Some fruits are guavas".
Conclusion II is Converse of it.
All mangos are guavas
No guava is a banana.
A + E => E - type of conclusion
"No mango is a banana

  • 3. Statements:
    Some fruits are mangos.
    All mangos are guavas.
    No guava is a banana.
    Conclusions:
    I. All fruits are bananas.
    II. No mango is a banana.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).
All mangos are guavas.
No guava is a banana

A + E => E - type of Conclusion
"No mango is a banana."
This is Conclusion II.

  • 4. Statements: 
    All locks are keys.
    Some keys are pockets.
    Conclusions:
    I. No pocket is lock.
    II. At least some pockets are keys.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'B'

(i)  All pages are markers     --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples    --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page         --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All locks are keys
Some keys are pockets.
A + I => No conclusion
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.

  • 5. Statements:
    No books is a pen.
    All pens are pencils
    All pencils are erasers.
    Conclusions:
    I. All pens are erasers.
    II. At least some erasers are pencils.
A.) If only conclusion I follows.
B.) If only conclusion II follows.
C.) If either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
D.) If both conclusions I and II follows.

Answer: Option 'D'

(i)  All pages are markers           --> Universal Affirmative (A - type).
(ii) Some fruits are apples          --> Particular Affirmative (I - type)
(iii)No book is a page                 --> Universal Negative (E - type).
(iv) Some books are  not pages --> Particular Negative (O - type).

All pens are pencils
All pencils are erasers.
A + A => A - type of Conclusion
"All pens are erasers."
This is conclusion I.
Conclusion II is Converse of the second Premise.